That was a very informative post, not that anyone should be surprised at this point as it's well-known here that you do have a very deep knowledge of this field. A couple of things that may fit the subject: When I spoke to one American school's registrar about their acceptance of propios, she told me that as long as the degree is awarded by a school that is in the International Handbook of Universities it would be acceptable without a foreign credential evaluation. So that prompted me for some reason to check the IHU handbook to see which schools aren't in there and I was able to easily find DEAC schools I thought wouldn't even be included, while some RA schools that I thought were at least known well enough in their areas weren't included, but I digress. UCAM is in the 2021 IHU handbook and they are an accredited university in Spain. I have seen arrangements in the UK where a program like Athena takes care of teaching the courses and a recognized UK University awards the degree. I believe one that I checked out a month or two ago was with London South Bank University. Another one was with the University of Chichester. The closest programs I can think of to that arrangement in the United States are: Coursera, edX, Midwest Teacher's Institute, and one program Manuel posted about in another thread where multiple universities were involved in awarding a degree in an engineering field which was equal to a similar arrangement we were scrutinizing from a legitimate Spanish entity. Compared to the whole, and as you pointed out, these are for sure not normal arrangements in the United States. I think there is a recognition part and an acceptance part to this. A student could get their foreign degree approved for evaluation and then receive a favorable result that recognizes the degree in the United States as equivalent to U.S. standards, but that of course doesn't mean the degree will be accepted at any of the schools or jobs that student applies to post-evaluation. Certainly, a favorable evaluation from a NACES-approved evaluation service would give that student a lot of options when it comes to transferring to a U.S. school however, but there are still no guarantees that one or more schools will accept it. So I do get that there is some uncertainty, and I can definitely understand those concerns when dealing with a Doctorate more than any other level.