From ancient times Persia was a center of scientific achievement and was often a mediator and conduit for the transfer of knowledge from China and India in the east to Greece and Rome in the west. Persian-speaking scholars have been active in advancing knowledge in the fields of science and technology, such as astronomy, chemistry, anatomy, biology, botany, cosmology, mathematics, engineering, and architecture. The Early Sassanid Prize included some of the earliest universities and libraries in the ancient world such as Jundi Shafur University which began its activities from 1700 years ago and is still active in Iran . After the Islamization of Persia (651) texts written in Persian (Middle Palawi) as well as Indian, Chinese, Greek, Aramaic and Latin scientific texts were translated into Arabic. Although Arabic remains the main language used for scientific writing in the Islamic world, many scholars have also produced a variety of scientific manuscripts and works in the Persian language. The Mughal government in India (1526–1858) became a center for the creation of scientific works in Persian. Over the centuries many scholars and scientists of Persian descent have written in Arabic, the language of choice for religious and scientific subjects. The libraries kept manuscripts in the original Arabic as well as translation into Turkish and Persian. In India from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, during the reign of the Mughal regime and the subsequent British rag period, many manuscripts were written in Persian. Herbal research: The study of herbs and their effects on humans has been an ancient tradition in Persian-speaking countries. This publication, written by two commanders of the Confederate movement of Muhammadi Pashtun in the Barkazai period (1826–1973), is a lithographic print of pharmacology. Explanation of human anatomy: This comprehensive guide in three volumes deals with the human body, diseases and medicinal properties of plants. The book was the first detailed guide to modern medicine in Iran and was probably used for teaching purposes at the Polytechnic College (Dar al-Punon) in Tehran. The first volume contains many detailed pictures illustrating the human anatomy, such as the one showing the lower half of the female body. Geographical Survey of the Countries of Persia Comprehensive geography of Iran and its history from the early Swift period to the 1970s. Many Iranian scientists and philosophers in the Middle Ages wrote books on various subjects and these books were later studied at universities in Europe. The effect of Ibn Sina on medical studies in Europe: From the beginning of the fourteenth century to the middle of the sixteenth century, Ibn Sina held a high place in Western medical studies in Europe, and was ranked along with Hippocrates and Glenn as a recognized authority. His books had a formative influence on the study medicine of the later Middle Ages, and in some places continued to be used for teaching medicine until the eighteenth century. Although Ibn Sina was more of a philosopher and scientist than a physician, the Europeans saw him primarily as the princeps medicorum (Prince of Physicians). The acquaintance of Western Europe with Ibn Sina began when Latin versions of some of his books were published between the mid-12th and the end of the thirteenth centuries. These versions were the product of a major translation movement that led to the translation of Greek, Arabic, philosophical, and literary literature (Persian scientists wrote in Arabic at the time) and Jewish, and greatly influenced medieval thought from the thirteenth century. The best known of Ibn Sina's works in the Middle Ages was the Encyclopedia of Al-Afa'a (The Book of Healing).