From ancient times Persia was a center of scientific achievement

Discussion in 'Off-Topic Discussions' started by Lerner, Jan 2, 2022.

  1. Lerner

    Lerner Well-Known Member

    From ancient times Persia was a center of scientific achievement and was often a mediator and conduit for the transfer of knowledge from China and India in the east to Greece and Rome in the west.
    Persian-speaking scholars have been active in advancing knowledge in the fields of science and technology, such as astronomy, chemistry, anatomy, biology, botany, cosmology, mathematics, engineering, and architecture.
    The Early Sassanid Prize included some of the earliest universities and libraries in the ancient world such as Jundi Shafur University which began its activities from 1700 years ago and is still active in Iran .
    After the Islamization of Persia (651) texts written in Persian (Middle Palawi) as well as Indian, Chinese, Greek, Aramaic and Latin scientific texts were translated into Arabic.
    Although Arabic remains the main language used for scientific writing in the Islamic world, many scholars have also produced a variety of scientific manuscripts and works in the Persian language.
    The Mughal government in India (1526–1858) became a center for the creation of scientific works in Persian. Over the centuries many scholars and scientists of Persian descent have written in Arabic, the language of choice for religious and scientific subjects.
    The libraries kept manuscripts in the original Arabic as well as translation into Turkish and Persian.
    In India from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, during the reign of the Mughal regime and the subsequent British rag period, many manuscripts were written in Persian.
    Herbal research: The study of herbs and their effects on humans has been an ancient tradition in Persian-speaking countries. This publication, written by two commanders of the Confederate movement of Muhammadi Pashtun in the Barkazai period (1826–1973), is a lithographic print of pharmacology.

    Explanation of human anatomy: This comprehensive guide in three volumes deals with the human body, diseases and medicinal properties of plants. The book was the first detailed guide to modern medicine in Iran and was probably used for teaching purposes at the Polytechnic College (Dar al-Punon) in Tehran.
    The first volume contains many detailed pictures illustrating the human anatomy, such as the one showing the lower half of the female body.
    Geographical Survey of the Countries of Persia Comprehensive geography of Iran and its history from the early Swift period to the 1970s. Many Iranian scientists and philosophers in the Middle Ages wrote books on various subjects and these books were later studied at universities in Europe.
    The effect of Ibn Sina on medical studies in Europe: From the beginning of the fourteenth century to the middle of the sixteenth century, Ibn Sina held a high place in Western medical studies in Europe, and was ranked along with Hippocrates and Glenn as a recognized authority.
    His books had a formative influence on the study medicine of the later Middle Ages, and in some places continued to be used for teaching medicine until the eighteenth century.
    Although Ibn Sina was more of a philosopher and scientist than a physician, the Europeans saw him primarily as the princeps medicorum (Prince of Physicians). The acquaintance of Western Europe with Ibn Sina began when Latin versions of some of his books were published between the mid-12th and the end of the thirteenth centuries. These versions were the product of a major translation movement that led to the translation of Greek, Arabic, philosophical, and literary literature (Persian scientists wrote in Arabic at the time) and Jewish, and greatly influenced medieval thought from the thirteenth century. The best known of Ibn Sina's works in the Middle Ages was the Encyclopedia of Al-Afa'a (The Book of Healing).

  2. Johann

    Johann Well-Known Member

    According to Ayatollah Google, Lerner's whole text appears to have been lifted verbatim from here:

    In high school, this technique (non-attribution of others' work) would have put me - or, likely, any of us - up on the principal's carpet for plagiarism. Would a simple introductory sentence and a URL reference not have been the proper thing to do, here? Someone "enlighten" me, please. And you are not required to do so in Persian (unless you want to).
  3. Johann

    Johann Well-Known Member

    On closer inspection, the text here is not verbatim. Almost, but not quite. It's quite heavily larded with transcription errors. Is the DI version possibly the work of an improperly-trained foreign scribe / copyist, mangling the original work of his Persian masters?

    For example, "Ancient Sassanid Persia" in the original is mis-translated on DI as "The Early Sassanid Prize..." Oh yes -- I detect really complex, elaborate subterfuge, here! Deliberate obfuscation. Something is VERY wrong in Tehran....or wherever. :)
  4. Lerner

    Lerner Well-Known Member

    The source is a closed site to members called "Coming to Academics". Its in a different language, so what I posted is translation.
    Posting link would be meaningless.
    BTW under the images you can see its from library of congress - links
    I found this info very interesting and wanted to share here on the DI site.
    Last edited: Jan 3, 2022
  5. Johann

    Johann Well-Known Member

    Uhh -- did "Coming to Academics" omit reference to the original (English-language) site, when they posted the entire article in translation to another language? If they did --- then it's on them! If they didn't omit it, then it's on the um... scribe / copyist...

    So - a closed site in another (unspecified) language. As another poster might have said, "How conveeenient!" That reduces my chances - but I'll see what Hebrew and/or Russian can dig me up ...Rabbi Wiki and Metropolitan Bing might help the Ayatollah Google, here.
    Last edited: Jan 3, 2022
  6. Lerner

    Lerner Well-Known Member


    They posted the images and with the images you have the links.
    The last posted image on the bottom of the page/post.
    Did you miss that?

    The translation errors are mine. I think auto spell checker and some I simply massed up.
  7. Johann

    Johann Well-Known Member

    PS - I did note that "Coming to Academics" correctly attributed one of the pictures to the English-language site - and other pics to their respective sources. So I'm thinking when I get to the bottom, I'll likely find they attributed the text to the proper English source. As you definitely did not.

    Why do you make me do all this work? I'm almost 79 - I'm supposed to be retired! :(
    I think you knew the drill.
    Last edited: Jan 3, 2022
  8. Lerner

    Lerner Well-Known Member

    I saw this movie, and started doing some more reading on the subject.
    later read the article that I translated and wanted to share with the DI readers.
    Johann, good to hear from you, Happy New Year!

    Last edited: Jan 3, 2022

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